ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES 60, 179-211 (1991)
The Theory of Planned Tendencies
ICEK AJZEN University of Massachusetts for Amherst Analysis dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned tendencies (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) can be reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In extensive terms, the idea is found to be very well supported by scientific evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different types can be believed with excessive accuracy by attitudes toward the behavior, very subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in real behavior. Thinking, subjective rules, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to ideal sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the actual nature of those relations remains uncertain. ExpectancyвЂ” value formulations are found to become only partly successful in working with these associations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and benefit measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is definitely shown to supply a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, an additional issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this kind of question shows that the theory can be predicting tendencies quite well in comparison to the ceiling enforced by behavioral reliability. В© 1991 Educational Press. Incorporation.
As every single student of psychology understands, explaining individual behavior in all its complexity is known as a difficult task. It is usually approached by many levels, from anxiety about physiological procedures at a single extreme to concentration on sociable institutions on the other. Social and individuality psychologists possess tended to focus on an advanced level, the fully working individual whose processing of accessible information mediates the effects of neurological and environmental factors in behavior. Principles referring to behavioral dispositions, just like social attitude and persona trait, have played an important role during these attempts to predict and explain human behavior (see Ajzen, 1988; Campbell, 1963; Sherman & Fazio, 1983). Various theoretical frameworks have been completely proposed to manage the emotional processes involved. This special edition of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes focuses on cogniI am very thankful to Nancy DeCourville, Rich Netemeyer, Michelle van Ryn, and Amiram Vinokur intended for providing unpublished data sets for reanalysis, and to Edwin Locke for his remarks on an earlier draft of this article. Address messages and reprint requests to Icek Ajzen, Department of Psychology, College or university of Ma, Amherst, MOTHER 01003-0034.
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tive self-regulation since an important element of human habit. In the internet pages below My spouse and i deal with intellectual self-regulation inside the context of your dispositional method to the conjecture of tendencies. A brief study of past initiatives at applying measures of behavioral dispositions to anticipate behavior is then presentation of the theoretical modelвЂ”the theory of planned behaviorвЂ”in which intellectual self-regulation takes on an important part. Recent study findings regarding various aspects of the theory happen to be discussed, with particular focus on unresolved problems. DISPOSITIONAL CONJECTURE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Very much has been manufactured from the fact that general agencement tend to end up being poor predictors of tendencies in particular situations. Standard attitudes have been assessed regarding organizations and institutions (the church, open public housing, pupil government, one*s job or employer), minority groups (Blacks, Jews, Catholics), and particular individuals with who a person might have interaction (a Black person, a fellow student). (See Ajzen & Fishbein,...
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