revision previous year paper

Organic Hormone balance - Introduction

1

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Basic meanings for organic chemistry

Range

Organic biochemistry is a huge subject it is therefore easier to divided it in small sections for study. This is usually created by studying chemical substances which act in a similar way because they have a particular atom, or perhaps group of atoms, (FUNCTIONAL GROUP) in their framework.

Catenation

The cabability to form a genuine between atoms of the same factor. Carbon catenates to form chains and wedding rings, with sole, double and/or triple covalent bonds.

Q. 1

•

Why does carbon dioxide form so many catenated substances?

• How come silicon undertake catenation to a lesser degree than co2?

Homologous

Series

A series of substances of similar structure through which each member is different from the subsequent by a common repeating product, CH2. The members from the series are called homologues. •

•

•

•

•

•

Functional

Groups

Most share similar general method.

Formula of a homologue differs from its neighbour by CH2. (e. g. CH4, C2H6,... etc ) Contain the same functional group(s).

Have related chemical homes.

Show a gradual change in physical real estate as gustar mass increases. Can usually be ready by related methods.

• Can include one atom, a group of atoms or multiple bonds between carbon atoms.

• Each functional group has its own distinctive properties meaning that the properties of a chemical substance are ruled by the functional group(s) in it. L

H

H

H

L

H

C

C

C

C

C

H

They would

H

H

H

carbon dioxide skeleton

Queen. 2

H

H

OH YEA

H

L

H

They would

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

L

H

They would

carbon skeletal system

functional

group

NH two

functional

group

The following list contains a lot of molecular formulae. Draw out as many legitimate structures for each and classify each compound made according to the functional group present. Remember that co2 atoms may have four covalent bonds surrounding them, air atoms will have two, nitrogen atoms 3 and hydrogen atoms and halogen atoms just one. C2H6

C4H10

C4H8

C2H6O

C3H6O

C2H7N

C2H4O2

C2H3N

two

Organic Hormone balance - Launch

2812

Several common functional groups

GROUP

ENDING

STYLE. FORMULA as well as STRUCTURE

ALKANE

- stamme

RH

ALKENE

- ene

ALKYNE

-- yne

HALOALKANE

halo --

RX

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

- ol

ROH

ALDEHYDE

-al

RCHO

KETONE

-- one

RCOR

EXAMPLE

C

C

C2H6

ethane

C

C

C2H4

ethene

C

C

C2H2

ethyne

C в€’ Cl

C2H5Cl

chloroethane

O H

C2H5OH

ethanol

CH3CHO

ethanal

CH3COCH3

propanone

CH3COOH

ethanoic acid

CH3COCl

ethanoyl chloride

CH3CONH2

ethanamide

CH3COOCH3

methyl ethanoate

CH3CN

ethanenitrile

L

C

To

C

C O

C

O They would

CARBOXYLIC

ACID

- oic acid

RCOOH

C

Um

Cl

ACYL

CHLORIDE

AMIDE

- oyl chloride

- amide

RCOCl

RCONH2

C

O

NH2

C

U

ESTER

- yl -- oate

RCOOR

O L

C

To

NITRILE

-- nitrile

RCN

C

AMINE

- amine

RNH2

C в€’ NH2

CH3NH2

methylamine

NITRO

- nitro

RNO2

+ To

N

Um

CH3NO2

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